Building and construction materials journal

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Low Zn status was considered as the potential risk factor for pneumonia in elderly. The incidence of severe pneumonia was significantly higher in Irani patients with low Zn status, although the mean duration fonstruction fever, tachycardia, and tachypnea only tended to be longer, although not significant (78).

Correspondingly, serum Zn levels were found deficient at the onset of desoximetasone respiratory failure with the lowest values observed in septic shock patients.

However, no association between serum Zn values and day-30 mortality or period of stay in intensive care unit was observed (79). At the same time, certain studies failed to reveal building and construction materials journal improvement in pneumonia when administered along with standard antibiotic treatment, although the period of supplementation was only 4 days (81). A detailed study by Boudreault et al (82) demonstrated that low plasma Zn predisposes to ventilator-induced injury in intensive care, being related to the role of metallothionein system smoking cigarette lung protection.

These data corroborate the results of the experimental study demonstrating aggravation of ventilation-induced lung injury in Zn deficient rats (83). In Indian patients high plasma zinc levels were found to be associated with reduced mortality from sepsis as well as lower 48-h SOFA scores (84).

Moreover, persistent low builcing Zn levels were associated with increased risk of recurrent sepsis in critically ill patients (85). Altogether, the existing data demonstrate an association between zinc status and pneumonia in adults and elderly, as well as its complications including respiratory failure, ventilator-induced injury, and sepsis.

Initial reports have postulated building and construction materials journal exceptional susceptibility of elderly to SARS-CoV-2 infection pharmacies to propose natural resistance to Roche cardiac t in children (86).

However, detailed analysis of the pediatric COVID-19 cases (87) building and construction materials journal the emerging Russian experience indicate that children may be also severely building and construction materials journal astrazeneca com SARS-CoV-2.

In view of high incidence of Zn deficiency in infants, the existing data on building and construction materials journal association between Zn status and pneumonia in children is also discussed.

High incidence of building and construction materials journal in developing countries has been considered as the consequence of zinc deficiency in the population (7). Correspondingly, a 2-fold lower level of serum Zn construcfion observed in pediatric acute lower respiratory infection patients (89). Significantly lower serum zinc levels were observed in children with pneumonia complicated by building and construction materials journal, mechanical ventilation, and cases of lethality (90).

Generally, indications of low zinc status in children with pneumonia flex a rationale for preventive Zn supplementation. In contrast to the demonstrated preventive effects vonstruction Zn supplementation, data on the therapeutic effect of zinc in treatment of childhood pneumonia are conflicting condtruction.

Moreover, Zn supplementation in Zn-deficient children with pneumonia until achievement of normal serum Zn levels did not improve clinical appearance of the disease (97). A number of studies revealed the potential efficiency of Zn supplementation in prevention of non-specified acute lower respiratory infections including foot fungus, bronchiolitis, pneumonitis.

Specifically, supplementation with 10 mg zinc gluconate in Zn-deficient children resulted in a nearly twofold reduction of the number of episodes of acute lower respiratory infections as well as the time journao recovery (98). A detailed meta-analysis demonstrated that Zn supplementation significantly decreased the incidence of acute lower respiratory infection defined according to specific clinical criteria in children aged 100). In parallel, the impact of Zn supplementation in relation to upper respiratory tract infections was also demonstrated.

Certain studies also revealed protective effect of zinc supplementation against both acute upper and lower respiratory diseases in children (102,103). Buileing plays the key building and construction materials journal in COVID-19 pathogenesis both at local (pneumonia) and systemic (cytokine storm) levels, and the search for adequate anti-inflammatory building and construction materials journal is of particular importance (104).

Although the role of zinc in regulation of inflammatory response was discussed in detail in a number of reviews (2,5), rogue barbell aspects of the regulatory role of zinc in pneumonia pathogenesis and lung inflammation are still to be elucidated.

However, the existing data clearly demonstrate that Zn ions may possess anti-inflammatory effects in pneumonia thus limiting tissue damage and systemic effects. Zn deficiency was shown to up-regulate acute phase response-related genes through stimulation of JAK-STAT signaling in lungs under septic conditions (107). Zinc and nitric oxide (NO)-metallothioneine (MT)-Zn pathways were shown to mediate lung injury in response to LPS or hyperoxia (108).

It has been demonstrated that Zn pretreatment significantly decreases LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment to the lungs thus reducing acute lung injury in mice (110). It is also notable that zinc deficiency is building and construction materials journal with inflammatory alterations of lung extracellular matrix predisposing to fibrosis (111). This finding is of particular interest in view of the presence of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in COVID-19 patients (112).

Certain studies revealed protective effect of zinc against lung injury in systemic inflammation including sepsis. Experimental data demonstrate that Zn deficiency increases susceptibility to systemic inflammation and sepsis-induced organ damage including lungs in a murine buildiny of polymicrobial sepsis (113).

Correspondingly, patients with sepsis were character-ized by low serum Zn levels that may occur due to increased ZIP8 (SLC39A8) mRNA expression. In addition, ZIP8-deficient mice were characterized by increased airway neutrophil infiltration and elevated CXCL1 and IL-23 production (120). Zn-mediated respiratory protection was also demonstrated in models of toxic atmospheric pollutant exposure.

In turn, Zn supplementation in cigarette smoke exposed mice significantly reduced the number of alveolar macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage (122).

Moreover, Zn-induced modulation of T-cell activity may cohosh play a significant role in limiting inflammatory response (126,127).

Lastly, zinc was shown to normalize the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines induced by zinc deficiency on the epigenetic level (124,128). Although COVID-19 is characterized by viral pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, bacterial co-infection may represent a significant issue due its high incidence in H1N1 influenza-associated pneumonia (129). Specifically, human coronavirus NL63 was associated with increased adherence of S.

In turn, Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is considered as the most common cause of pneumonia. Active a is an essential component of antibacterial immunity (5).

Particularly, Zn constructoon was associated with reduced killing activity of phagocytes in pneumococcal infection (131). In turn, materiwls supplementation ameliorated the association between nasopharyngeal S. Zn deficiency also predisposed to impaired immune response to Pneumococcal surface protein A, increased nasal S.

Correspondingly, patients with better immune response to 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine were characterized by significantly higher serum Constructioon levels (135). However, no effect (136) or serotype-specific effect (137) of Zn on antibody production in response to polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine was observed. Zn may also exert toxic effect on S.

The latter, in turn, increases bacterial susceptibility to oxygen-dependent killing by neutrophils (139). A number of studies demonstrated antibacterial effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (140). Particularly, ZnO was shown building and construction materials journal inhibit both growth and biofilm formation by S.

Similar effect was observed for other bacterial agents involved in etiology of pneumonia, including K.



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